Some student learning outcomes are discipline-specific. For instance, one would expect students majoring in chemistry, music, or economics to acquire different skills and competencies. A process called Tuning is intended to generate a common language for communicating these discipline-specific outcomes.  First developed as a component of the Bologna Process of higher education reform in Europe,  Tuning is a process in which teaching faculty consult with recent graduates and employers to develop common reference points for academic degrees so that student credentials are comparable within and across higher education institutions.  Expectations are set for associate, bachelor, and master degree levels. Generic second cycle or bachelor degree level learning expectations as defined by the European Tuning process are noted below. Recent work funded by the Lumina Foundation has replicated this work in three states to test its feasibility in the . 
WSN nodes resource constrained. In order to keep the size and the cost of the nodes down, the nodes have limited processing power, memory and radio range. However, the resource constraint which has the most significant impact on many WSNs is the constraint on energy. WSN nodes are battery operated. Many wireless sensor networks are deployed in locations where battery replacement is not feasible. A node has to be discarded when the battery depletes. Energy scavenging may alleviate this problem in some sensor networks. Most WSN protocols are very conscious of the limited supply of energy, and try to conserve energy.